This post was originally published on this site

Table of contents

What is ESG investing? | A brief history of ESG | How to measure corporate responsibility | The debate over ESG’s effectiveness | The future of sustainable investing

Global corporations virtually never lose shareholder votes on how to govern their boards and businesses. For decades, ExxonMobil, the seventh biggest oil producer in the world, has swatted away activists who tried to force it to improve its poor environmental record. Year after year, the company’s biggest investors have rubber-stamped whatever the board wanted, just as they were expected to.